WHAT IS WHAT?
RECURRING TERMS EXPLAINED
WHAT IS WHAT?
RECURRING TERMS EXPLAINED
The An allergen source is the producer of the allergen, for example a house dust mite producing allergenic proteins. is the allergen producer, for example dust mites.
Mixture of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins. Allergen extracts are most famously used in allergy skin prick tests. Unfortunately, they cannot be standardized for testing.
A sensitizing molecule, capable of inducing the release of An organic compound involved in local immune responses. During an allergic reaction, the immune system starts a chain reaction that prompts the body’s mast cells to release histamine. This process causes typical allergy symptoms such as sneezing, itchy eyes, or a runny nose.. Molecular allergens are used in the most modern form of in-vitro blood allergy tests. Their use brings more accurate results for the patients, as well as a lot of additional information (cross-reactions, indication for The prevention or treatment of an immunological disease with substances (i.e., allergens) that stimulate the immune response., better risk assessment regarding A severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can lead to a potentially fatal condition known as anaphylactic shock. It can occur within minutes or several hours after coming into contact with an allergen and is often caused by reactions to medication, food allergens or insect venom., and special dietary recommendations).
FACTS ABOUT ALLERGENS
- Allergens are mostly defined proteins which belong to a rather small number of families
- Allergens from different sources but from the same protein family can cross-react
- Allergenic proteins that often bind to IgE antibodies are described as major allergens
- 50% of allergic patients have IgE antibodies, which are the genuine cause of allergic symptoms
- Allergenic proteins that less often bind to IgE antibodies are described as minor allergens
- Minor allergens are less frequent and typically cross-reactive
THE BENEFITS OF USING MOLECULAR ALLERGENS
WHAT SETS THE 7DROPS TEST APART
BETTER RISK ASSESSMENT
The use of molecular allergens leads to a much more precise risk assessment, meaning the risk of A severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can lead to a potentially fatal condition known as anaphylactic shock. It can occur within minutes or several hours after coming into contact with an allergen and is often caused by reactions to medication, food allergens or insect venom. in a patient. The increased risk for severe symptoms and anaphylactic reactions depends on the degree of Sensitization is the first step towards developing a type I allergy. Allergic reactions do not occur upon first contact with an allergen. Before that can happen, your immune system must be able to recognize an allergen. When you get stung by a bee, your immune system will remember the structure of the allergen (= a protein in the insect venom) to be able to produce IgE antibodies against it in the future. This process is called sensitization. to allergens with increased thermal stability and digestive resistance, for example storage proteins found in nuts.
INFORMATION ON CROSS-REACTIVITY
The use of molecular allergens also gives a complete resolution of possible cross-reactivities between different allergens belonging to the same protein family, for example Profilins, which are one of the major causes of cross-reactions between pollen and plant food.
INDICATION FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY
The use of molecular allergens gives indication about the targeted use of specific The prevention or treatment of an immunological disease with substances (i.e., allergens) that stimulate the immune response. (SIT) to relieve allergy symptoms in the patient.
The use of molecular allergens makes it possible to give differentiated dietary recommendations to every patient, for example whether a trigger food can still be tolerated when cooked, since some allergens are unstable to heat.
MINIMIZE FALSE-POSITIVE RESULTS
CCDs are sugars located on allergens and are able to induce the production of IgE antibodies. They are clinically irrelevant, but can lead to false results in solely extract-based tests. If the medical history of a patient is unclear, a Stands for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CCDs play a role in the context of allergy diagnosis. CCDs are sugars located on allergens and are able to induce the production of IgE antibodies. They are clinically irrelevant, but can lead to false-positive diagnostic results in allergy testing. It is possible to add CCD inhibitors during the processing of a sample to prevent false-positive results. This is one of the key features of the ALL technology. It is the only test that offers automatic CCD blocking of antibodies. positive result might look like a grass pollen allergy at first glance, for example. As soon as CCDs are blocked from the testing process, the results turn negative. The 7DROPS allergy test automatically blocks CCDs during the processing of samples to minimize false-positive results from the start.
PROTEIN FAMILIES & THEIR PROPERTIES
Proteins are systematically categorised in families, based on their amino acid sequence and structure.
Certain protein families have properties, for example:
- Resistance to heat
- Resistance to digestion
- High degree of cross-reactivity
Knowledge about protein families and their properties helps doctors to guide the patient through therapeutic measures.
The ALL Allergen List gives you a comprehensive overview regarding an allergen’s common name, scientific name, component, and biochemical designation (= the name of the protein family it belongs to).
THE PROFILIN FAMILY & CROSS-REACTIONS
Profilins are a major cause for the cross-reactivity between pollen and plant food. If a patient is sensitized to an allergen of the profilin familiy (e.g., Birch tree, Olive tree, or Mugwort), they typically exhibit Occurs when proteins of certain foods are similar in structure to allergenic proteins in certain types of pollen. Patients with a pollen allergy experience symptoms of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) in response to eating certain fresh fruits, vegetables and nuts. Symptoms usually include mild swelling and itching of the lips, tongue, inside of the mouth, soft palate, throat and ears. (OAS) symptoms when eating plant foods like tomatoes, bananas, or melons.
Profilins are also described as labile proteins, since they are not stable to heat and digestion and cause more localized and lighter symptoms than their stable counterparts that can be found in nuts, for example.
STORAGE PROTEINS IN NUTS & SEVERE REACTIONS
Different allergen proteins can cause different types of symptoms that also differ in severity and risk for anaphylactic reactions. There are food allergens with an increased thermal stability and digestive resistance, which means that cooking the foods containing these respective proteins does not change their allergenic properties – they are called stable proteins.
Many nuts contain stable proteins that can cause mixed to severe reactions (OAS, local symptoms, or systemic reactions like A severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can lead to a potentially fatal condition known as anaphylactic shock. It can occur within minutes or several hours after coming into contact with an allergen and is often caused by reactions to medication, food allergens or insect venom.) in a sensitized patient. Hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, walnuts, pecans, brazil nuts, pine nuts, and coconuts all contain storage proteins from different protein families (e.g., 2S Albumins). Despite being officially classified as a legume, peanuts also contain similar storage proteins.